Commonly used Idioms
Idiom: a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language
Every language has its own collection of wise sayings. They offer advice about how to live and also transmit some underlying ideas, principles and values of a given culture / society.
These sayings are called "idioms" - or proverbs if they are longer. These combinations of words have (rarely complete sentences) a "figurative" meaning - they basically work with "pictures".
This list of commonly used idioms and sayings (in everyday conversational English) can help you to speak English by learning English idiomatic expressions. This is a list, which contains exactly 66 of the most commonly used idioms and their meaning.
- A hot potato
- Speak of an issue (mostly current) which many people are talking about and which is usually disputed
- A penny for your thoughts
- A way of asking what someone is thinking
- Actions speak louder than words
- People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say.
- Add insult to injury
- To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation.
- At the drop of a hat
- Meaning: without any hesitation; instantly.
- Back to the drawing board
- When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over.
- Ball is in your court
- It is up to you to make the next decision or step
- Barking up the wrong tree
- Looking in the wrong place. Accusing the wrong person
- Be glad to see the back of
- Be happy when a person leaves.
- Beat around the bush
- Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.
- Best of both worlds
- Meaning: All the advantages.
- Best thing since sliced bread
- A good invention or innovation. A good idea or plan.
- Bite off more than you can chew
- To take on a task that is way to big.
- Blessing in disguise
- Something good that isn't recognized at first.
- Burn the midnight oil
- To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting.
- Can't judge a book by its cover
- Cannot judge something primarily on appearance.
- Caught between two stools
- When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives.
- Costs an arm and a leg
- This idiom is used when something is very expensive.
- Cross that bridge when you come to it
- Deal with a problem if and when it becomes necessary, not before.
- Cry over spilt milk
- When you complain about a loss from the past.
- Curiosity killed the cat
- Being Inquisitive can lead you into an unpleasant situation.
- Cut corners
- When something is done badly to save money.
- Cut the mustard [possibly derived from "cut the muster"]
- To succeed; to come up to expectations; adequate enough to compete or participate
- Devil's Advocate
- To present a counter argument
- Don't count your chickens before the eggs have hatched
- This idiom is used to express "Don't make plans for something that might not happen".
- Don't give up the day job
- You are not very good at something. You could definitely not do it professionally.
- Don't put all your eggs in one basket
- Do not put all your resources in one possibility.
- Drastic times call for drastic measures
- When you are extremely desperate you need to take drastic actions.
- Elvis has left the building
- The show has come to an end. It's all over.
- Every cloud has a silver lining
- Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.
- Far cry from
- Very different from.
- Feel a bit under the weather
- Meaning: Feeling slightly ill.
- Give the benefit of the doubt
- Believe someone's statement, without proof.
- Hear it on the grapevine
- This idiom means 'to hear rumors' about something or someone.
- Hit the nail on the head
- Do or say something exactly right
- Hit the sack / sheets / hay
- To go to bed.
- In the heat of the moment
- Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment.
- It takes two to tango
- Actions or communications need more than one person
- Jump on the bandwagon
- Join a popular trend or activity.
- Keep something at bay
- Keep something away.
- Kill two birds with one stone
- This idiom means, to accomplish two different things at the same time.
- Last straw
- The final problem in a series of problems.
- Let sleeping dogs lie
- Meaning - do not disturb a situation as it is - since it would result in trouble or complications.
- Let the cat out of the bag
- To share information that was previously concealed
- Make a long story short
- Come to the point - leave out details
- Method to my madness
- An assertion that, despite one's approach seeming random, there actually is structure to it.
- Miss the boat
- This idiom is used to say that someone missed his or her chance
- Not a spark of decency
- Meaning: No manners
- Not playing with a full deck
- Someone who lacks intelligence.
- Off one's rocker
- Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile.
- On the ball
- When someone understands the situation well.
- Once in a blue moon
- Meaning: Happens very rarely.
- Picture paints a thousand words
- A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words.
- Piece of cake
- A job, task or other activity that is easy or simple.
- Put wool over other people's eyes
- This means to deceive someone into thinking well of them.
- See eye to eye
- This idiom is used to say that two (or more people) agree on something.
- Sit on the fence
- This is used when someone does not want to choose or make a decision.
- Speak of the devil!
- This expression is used when the person you have just been talking about arrives.
- Steal someone's thunder
- To take the credit for something someone else did.
- Take with a grain of salt
- This means not to take what someone says too seriously.
- Taste of your own medicine
- Means that something happens to you, or is done to you, that you have done to someone else
- To hear something straight from the horse's mouth
- To hear something from the authoritative source.
- Whole nine yards
- Everything. All of it.
- Wouldn't be caught dead
- Would never like to do something
- Your guess is as good as mine
- To have no idea, do not know the answer to a question
Although it is difficult to draw a clear line, "an 'idiom' can not be defined as a synonym for aphorism. It is more than that. To be an idiom, a word or phrase must be distinctive to a specific language and have a meaning that is not obvious from the common meaning of the words employed. For example: "raining cats and dogs", "hangover", "jonesing" [drug withdrawal symptoms]. "You're pulling my leg" is an English idiom for "teasing", while "You're winding my clock" is an English translation of a German idiom that means the same thing. Note that in both cases, the meaning is transferred by the culture, not the words themselves." [Author:Robert Hard]
Download these English idioms as a PDF Commonly used Idioms (approximately 600 KB).
Idioms are used in all areas of the English language, but can be considered especially important when it comes to learning English through the act of speaking.
An idiom is a short phrase with its own specific meaning, and learning English idioms can help you to understand and become more like a native speaker.
A knee-jerk reaction
Meaning: An automatic response to something
Apple of my eye
Meaning: Often daughters or sons are referred to as the "apple" of their parent's eye
Origin: This phrase originates from King David, who wrote in Psalm 17 to ask God to remember and love David as His child: "Keep me as the apple of Your eye, hide me in the shadow of Your wings."
As busy as a bee
Meaning: To be extremely busy
At the drop of a hat
Back to basics
Meaning: Simplifying things
Origin: The UK Prime Minister John Major was quoted as saying, 'It is time to get back to basics.’ He was referring to the idea that the UK should try to revert back to a simpler time
Back to square one
Meaning: Go back to the beginning
Origin: In order to make football easily understandable to the listeners, a system of division was created. The field was separated into numbered squares with number one as the centre. Hence, after a goal, the ball went back to square one and they started again
Break a Leg
Meaning: Wishing someone good luck
Origin: In the theatre, if your performance was liked the crowd, they might ask for an ‘encore,’ which means a curtain call. The stick that is used to raise and lower the curtain was called a leg, so ‘break a leg,’ means to get so many curtain calls that the leg breaks in two. It’s worth noting that wishing ‘good luck’ in the theatre is considered bad luck, so an alternative had to be found
Chip on his shoulder
Meaning: Carry a grudge
Origin: It dates back to the 19th century when fighters would put a chip on their shoulder and challenge others to hit it off
Close but no cigar
Meaning: Coming close to achieving success, but reaching a disappointment due to failure
Origin: Many years ago slot machines gave out cigars as prizes. Also, early carnival games also gave out cigars as prizes
Cut to the chase
Meaning: Get to the point
Origin: This comes from Hollywood in the 1920's and meant to move from a dramatic scene to an action scene
Meaning: Identical to something or someone
Origin: In England people who were afraid of being buried alive would attach a string to their finger that ran up to a bell. If they were alive they would ring the bell and be later dug up.
Example: 'He's a dead ringer for Hu Jintao'
Dog eat dog
Meaning: situation in which people act ruthlessly in order to be successful
Don't look a gift horse in the mouth
Meaning: When you are given something you shouldn’t be ungrateful
Origin: If you count the teeth of a horse you can tell its age, but this would be rude if that horse were a present because you are finding fault
Meaning: A double setback from being able to do something
Every Tom, Dick, and Harry
Meaning: This refers to everybody and excludes no one. It might come from the fact that the names Tom, Dick and Harry were very common years ago and so would seem to include every person possible.
Example: ‘Every Tom, Dick and Harry wants to borrow my bike!'
Excuse My French
Meaning: An apology before or after swearing
Face the Music
Meaning: Having to confront the awkward situation
Origin: This comes from the theatre, where musicians were seated in front of the stage. Hence, facing the music meant turning towards the audience, or whatever problem you had.
Fly on the wall
Meaning: A fly on the wall refers to someone who over sees something without the watched noticing him/her.
From top to bottom
Meaning: Completely, thoroughly, totally
Get cold feet
Meaning: Become frightened or nervous about something that you have to do
Get out of the wrong side of the bed
Meaning: In a bad mood
Origin: It is unlucky to put your left foot on the floor first when getting out of bed, and this can affect your mood for the rest of the day
Get the run-around
Meaning: Receive a series of excuses, delays, etc. This means that you have been treated in a way that causes you to do much more than you really should, by not giving you the answer you seek. This is also called a 'wild goose chase.'
A. 'Hi, I would like to know my bank balance.'
B. 'Sorry that's not our department, try 1234567'
A. 'Hi 1234567, I would like to know my bank balance.'
C. 'Sorry that's not our department, try 4567890'
A. 'Hi 4567890, I would like to know my bank balance.'
B. 'Sorry that's not our department, try 1234567'
A. 'Wow, I am getting the run-around'
Get the short end of the stick
Meaning: Getting the smallest share or worst position
Meaning: Working the night-shift, working at night
Origin: This has a very spooky meaning and comes from the fact that in old England people were sometimes buried alive by mistake (think unconscious). Years later the graves were moved to a new location and signs of attempted escape such as finger scrapes inside the coffin were discovered. In order to make sure this never happened again, an employee was used to stay in the graveyard at night and listen for any sounds, hence the working the night-shift.
Hit the hay
Meaning: Go to bed
Origin: Before mattresses used to be stuffed with hay or straw, so when one was hitting the hay they were on their way to bed, thus that’s where the meaning 'hit the hay' or go to bed comes from.
In full swing
Meaning: Currently happening at full speed
In nothing flat
Meaning: Immediately, straight away
In the bag
Meaning: Secured / guaranteed outcome
Origin: This idiom originated in Great Britain when a bag was placed under the Speaker's chair (parliament). If there was a petition that was 'put in the bag' then it must be raised on that day.
In the long run
In the doghouse
Meaning: Being in trouble with someone
Meaning: Bad luck
Origin: This is a 17th century word for a spell. In the early 1900's, sportswriters used the term to mean bad luck
Keep a straight face
Meaning: You should try not to laugh even though you find something really funny. You should use this when you are trying not to laugh at someone directly, usually from fear of being rude.
Example: 'Did you see that lady fall down the hole? I was trying to keep a straight face'
Kick the Bucket
Meaning: To die
Origin: Refers to people who committed suicide by putting a noose around their neck and standing on a bucket. It was the act of kicking it away that would kill them
Late in the day
Meaning: Something that has happened at a very late stage
Level playing field
Meaning: This is a term which refers to an equal and fair competition
Example: ‘Now we are on a level playing field'
Like a headless chicken
Meaning: In a frenzied and uncontrollable manner
Make a mountain out of a molehill
Meaning: Make something minor into a major issue
Mum's the word
Meaning: Keep a secret and don't say anything
Origin: This comes from the works of Shakespeare in Henry VI, Part 2.He wrote that a character should 'seal up your lips and give no words but mum,' because mum is the sound of a hum you can only make with your mouth closed
Example: ‘Mum's the word, let’s keep this secret'
Not playing with a full deck
Meaning: If your 'not playing with a full deck' then you are either stupid or crazy
Origin: This comes from lacking the required intelligence, as a card game being played with a missing card
Off The Cuff
Meaning: An unprepared/adlib action
Origin: This is to do with public speakers in the 1930's writing notes on their shirt cuffs, in case they forgot their speeches
Meaning: Something that is supposedly a secret, but that everyone knows
Over the top
Meaning: Exaggerated or excessive
Origin: In WW1 the trenches were cut into the earth, and you had to go over them and onto the battlefield when it was time to attack. Subsequently it means doing more than is usually required of you. Some now refer to it has just 'OTT' in abbreviations
Pull the Wool Over His Eyes
Meaning: To deceive someone
Origin: Pulling a woollen jumper over someone’s eyes would block out their sight, and might allow you to cheat them
Put a sock in it
Meaning: Be quiet!
Origin: When people used to listen to music they used gramophones, but since they didn't have any volume control the only way to turn down the volume was by stuffing something into it. This may well have been a sock and so people now use the term, 'put a sock in it" when they want you to be quiet. Remember though, this is a rude way of asking.
A. 'I LOVE JESUS!!!!!'
B. 'Put a sock in it!'
Put on airs
Meaning: To act superior
Meaning: Important time a parent spends with a child
Origin: In the 1980's the government published the fact that parents could work hard and still have a good family life
Raining Cats and Dogs
Meaning: A heavy rain
Origin: Historical England’s houses had hay roofs and these were very slippery when wet. When it rained, the roofs became oily and any animals that were sleeping there would slide off
Meaning: You are guilty of doing something and people know it
Origin: This term for guilt dates back to the 1400's when it meant having blood on one's hands. Use this with the action of catching someone in the act of doing something. It usually refers to a guilty person being found out.
'Stop that now, you have been caught red-handed'
Rule of thumb
Meaning: A rule of thumb is a basic rule that is usually but not always correct
Origin: The term comes from medieval times when the diameter of your thumb was thought to be the largest diameter of a stick which was legally allowed to beat your wife. How nice.
Example: 'As a rule of thumb, I like to wash my hands before I eat'
Send someone packing
Meaning: Send someone away, get rid of someone
Shake a leg
Meaning: To get you active in the morning and out of bed.
Origin: This was originally a naval term which was used to get new sailors out of their beds. The officer in charge would come in to the sleeping area and shout ‘shake a leg,’ and the sailors had to do so to prove they were awake. It can be used to get someone out of bed, but can also be applied when trying to ask someone to do something faster than they are currently doing. It might be what a parent might say to a child who was walking slowly behind them
Meaning: An insignificant amount of money, not worth doing something for
Example: 'You want me to bet £1? That's small potatoes, let's bet £50!'
Meaning: Easy to be in control of
Spill the beans
Meaning: Reveal a secret you have know
The penny dropped
Meaning: To finally understand something
Example: 'I wasn't sure how he did that magic trick, and then the penny dropped'
Tickle someone's fancy
Meaning: To interest someone in something
Tie the knot
Meaning: To get married
Three strikes and you are out
Meaning: You have only three chances to do something
Origin: You should recognise this from baseball, as a player has three chances to hit the ball before their turn is over. Thus it can now be used to talk about having three chances to complete a task.
A. 'Guess which number I am thinking of'
A. 'Three strikes and you are out!'
To be with it
Meaning: To be up-to-date
Meaning: Looking for good luck
Origin: This is most likely due to the old religious idea that trees have spirits, which traditionally bring good luck
Turn A Blind Eye
Meaning: To look the other way, to pretend not to notice something
Under the Weather
Meaning: To feel ill
Origin: Traditionally when it rained on a boat, people went down into the main part to get away from the weather. And also traditionally, because people feel ill on a boat, this was much worse when the weather was bad and the boat was rocking
Use your loaf
Meaning: To think, to figure something out
'Q. How can I open that door?'
'A. Use your loaf! Turn the handle'
Where there's muck there's brass
Meaning: There's money to be made with dirty jobs
Origin: Brass = money and muck = dirt
X Marks The Spot
Meaning: The exact location
Origin: A pirate’s map of buried treasure marks the location with an X
You can't take it with you
Meaning: When you are dead, materials are worthless
Origin: This comes from the Bible and the idea that heaven doesn’t accept material goods
Your name is mud
Meaning: Your reputation is ruined